Prices. The climate can be divided into two major areas, the north, influenced by the Mediterranean, and the south, influenced by the Saharan desert. List View List. Africa’s highest temperature, about 131 °F (55 °C), was recorded in Kebili, a town in central Tunisia. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Now a well-heeled northern suburb... Roman Rebirth. Eugene Roe; Project maintenance. The following discussion offers a brief summary of Tunisia’s early history but mainly focuses on Tunisia since about 1800. By the beginning of the 19th century, virtually all of its inhabitants spoke Arabic. The following discussion offers a brief summary of Tunisia’s early history but mainly focuses on Tunisia since about 1800. Dec 15, 2015 - Lamine Bey, first king and last bey of Tunisia. Agricultural communities in the humid coastal plains of central Tunisia then were ancestors of today's Berber tribes. Travel Destinations. Tunis itself was located near the site of the ancient city-state of Carthage. However, Tunisia remained an authoritarian state with an all-powerful ruling party and no significant institutions of representative government. Independence under the Neo-Destour Party (1956–2011), Factional tension, compromise, and a new constitution, Dissatisfaction with the political establishment and the election of Kais Saied. Book Description. Berber, the earlier language of the Maghrib, survived in Tunisia in only a few pockets, mainly in the extreme south. Finally, from the 16th to the 19th century, the Ottomans brought their own blend of Asian and European traditions. Tunisia is bounded by Algeria to the west and southwest, by Libya to the southeast, and by the Mediterranean Sea to the east and north. Kairouan. Occupying the eastern portion of the great bulge of North Africa, Tunisia is bounded on Tunisia - History 3; Refine by. According to Greek legend, Dido, a princess of Tyre, was the first outsider to settle among the native tribes of what is now Tunisia when she founded the city of Carthage in the 9th century bce. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. More acceptable were Aḥmad’s steps to integrate Arabic-speaking native Tunisians fully into the government, which had long been dominated by mamlūks (military slaves) and Turks. Kenneth Perkins' book traces the history of Tunisia from the mid-nineteenth century to the present. The most notable immigration was that of the Spanish Moors (Muslims), which began after the fall of Sevilla (Seville), Spain, as a result of the Reconquista in 1248 and which turned into a veritable exodus in the early 17th century. Tunisia’s people are renowned for their conviviality and easygoing approach to daily life, qualities that Albert Memmi captured in his 1955 autobiographical novel Pillar of Salt: We shared the ground floor of a shapeless old building, a sort of two-room apartment. Popular pages. History. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The history of early Tunisia and its indigenous inhabitants, the Berbers, is obscure prior to the founding of Carthage by seafaring Phoenicians from Tyre (in present-day Lebanon) in the 9th century BC .A great mercantile state developed at Carthage (near modern-day Tunis), which proceeded to dominate the western Mediterranean world. To the south of the Tunisian Dorsale lies a hilly region known as the Haute Steppe (High Steppes) in the west and the Basse Steppe (Low Steppes) in the east. The population of Tunisia is essentially Arab Berber. A Brief History of Tunisia Muslim Conquest. The Tunisian Dorsale, or High Tell, a southwest-northeast–trending mountain range that is an extension of the Saharan Atlas (Atlas Saharien) of Algeria, tapers off in the direction of the Sharīk (Cape Bon) Peninsula in the northeast, south of the Gulf of Tunis. One name looms above all in Tunisia's history: Carthage. Farther south there is a series of chott (or shaṭṭ; salty lake) depressions. Carthage Must Be Destroyed:… by Richard Miles. Brief History of Tunisia: Tunisia is the northern point of Africa. Category:History of Tunisia | Military Wiki | Fandom. Like much of North Africa, Tunisia's history is one littered with conquests that completely changed the country's path. The vast majority of the population was Muslim, with a small Jewish minority. The summer is hot and dry in the north, and the winter is mild and consists of frequent rains. From that time until the establishment of the French protectorate in 1881, Tunisian rulers had to placate the larger powers while working to strengthen the state from within. Comparable temperatures at Kairouan are 40 °F (4 °C) in January and 99 °F (37 °C) in August. Explore. But before reaching this square of pure blue sky, it received, from a multitude of windows, all the smoke, the smells, and the gossip of our neighbours. The precipitation also greatly varies, as the north receives significantly more rainfall than the south. Its coastline on the Mediterranean Sea made it the subject of many empires throughout history. Travel. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). In time the Carthaginians built an empire in the Mediterranean. This status was achieved, for example, under the ʿAbbāsids in the 9th century and later under the Ottomans. Paperback; NOOK Book; Hardcover; Tunisia - History. By 1574, Tunisia was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire, whose control of the region, always tenuous, had all but dissolved by the 19th century. Updates? Tunisia was called Ifrīqiyyah in the early centuries of the Islamic period. Carthage was a Phoenician city-state on the coast of North Africa (the site of modern-day Tunis) which, prior the conflict with Rome known as the Punic Wars (264-146 BCE), was the largest, most affluent, and powerful political entity in the Mediterranean.The city was originally known as Kart-hadasht (new city) to distinguish it from the older Phoenician city of Utica nearby. Tunisia has a very unique location. Although the story is certainly apocryphal, Carthage nonetheless grew into one of the great cities and preeminent powers of antiquity, and its colonies and entrepôts were scattered throughout the western Mediterranean region. With the help of Western advisers (mainly French), he created a modern army and navy and related industries. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Ichkeul National Park, in the northernmost part of the country, was named a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1980. Throughout its recorded history, the physical features and environment of the land of Tunisia have remained fairly constant, although during ancient times more abundant forests grew in the north, and earlier in prehistory the Sahara to the south was not an arid desert. Tunisia’s geographic and historical legacy helped prepare it for the shocks it received in the 19th century as a land caught between an expanding Europe and a declining Ottoman Empire. pop. Add to Wishlist. History Tunisia was settled by the Phoenicians in the 12th century B.C. Muslim Andalusians migrated to the area after having been forced out of Spain during the Reconquista, particularly following the defeat of the Muslim kingdom of Granada in 1492. Tunisia is situated in the warm temperate zone between latitudes 37° and 30° N. In the north the climate is Mediterranean, characterized by mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers with no marked intervening seasons. Tunisie, officially Republic of Tunisia, republic (2015 est. Tunisia's geographical location has meant that many different peoples have entered and dominated the country. Harvests vary as a result, being poor in dry years. Drainage. (For a discussion of political changes in Tunisia in 2011, see Jasmine Revolution.). List of beys of Tunis. However, throughout the centuries Tunisia has received various waves of immigration that have included Phoenicians, sub-Saharan Africans, Jews, Romans, Vandals, and Arabs; Muslim refugees from Sicily settled in Al-Sāḥil after their homeland was captured by the Normans in 1091. Omissions? The final blow to Tunisia’s sovereignty came at the Congress of Berlin in 1878, when Britain acquiesced to France’s control of Tunisia. Aside from these and from the plains of the Haute Steppe region, where some clay soils of medium fertility may be found, soils in the rest of the country tend to be rocky or sandy. The Glory Days of Carthage. Conscription was also introduced, to the great dismay of the peasantry. By about 8,000 BC human beings lived in what is now Tunisia by hunting and gathering. $5 - $10; $10 - $25; $25 - $50; Over $50; Formats. After initially examining the years of French colonial rule from 1881 to 1956, when the Tunisians achieved independence, he describes the subsequent process of state-building, including the design of political and economic structures and the promotion of a social and cultural agenda. Between the limestone peaks of the central Tunisian Dorsale and the mountains of the Northern Tell—which include the sandstone ridges of the Kroumirie Mountains in the northwest that reach elevations of 3,000 feet (900 metres)—and the Mogods, a mountain range running along the deeply indented coastline to the north, lies the Majardah (Medjerda) River valley, formed by a series of ancient lake basins covered with alluvium. Aḥmad Bey, who ruled from 1837 to 1855, was an avowed modernizer and reformer. Ḥusayn Bey even accepted the idea that Tunisian princes would rule the cities of Constantine and Oran. Tunisia is one of the … On the political level the successful conclusion of the Tunisia Campaign left one Allied problem unsolved: factionalism among the French. Aḥmad abolished slavery and took other modernizing steps intended to bring Tunisia more in line with Europe, but he also exposed his country to Europe’s infinitely greater economic and political power. Author of. The Romans ruled and settled in North Africa until the 5th century, when the Roman Empire fell and... From Arab Center to French Protectorate. When the principal minister, Muṣṭafā Khaznadār (who had served from the earliest days of Aḥmad Bey’s reign), attempted to squeeze more taxes out of the hard-pressed peasants, the countryside rose in a revolt (1864). See if your geographic knowledge points north or south in this journey through Africa. Add new page. This book examines the history of Tunisia from the mid-nineteenth century to the present with an emphasis on political, social, economic and cultural developments. As a result, some 200,000 Spanish Muslims settled in the area of Tunis, in the Majardah valley, and on the Sharīk Peninsula in the north, bringing with them their urban culture and more advanced agricultural and irrigation techniques. Tunisia is characterized by moderate relief. Book Description. About 480 BC the Phoenicians founded Carthage. Desert locusts sometimes damage crops in the southern part of the country. Temperatures at Sousse average 44 °F (7 °C) in January and 89 °F (32 °C) in August. That name, in turn, comes from the Roman word for Africa and the name also given by the Romans to their … In the 7th century Arab conquerors converted the native Berber (Amazigh) population of North Africa to Islam. Land. The extreme south is largely sandy desert, much of it part of the Great Eastern Erg of the Sahara. Culture of Tunisia - Wikipedia In 1956, … Most visited articles. Relief. During the 1990s the government sponsored the construction of a number of dams to control flooding, preserve runoff, and recharge the water table. The scheme, however, had no chance of success and was soon abandoned. Tunisia. This valley was once the granary of ancient Rome and has remained to this day the richest grain-producing region of Tunisia. That name, in turn, comes from the Roman word for Africa and the name also given by the Romans to their first African colony following the Punic Wars against the Carthaginians in 264–146 bce. The history of Tunisia reveals this rich past where different successive Mediterranean cultures had a strong presence. After about 5,000 BC they began farming although they still used stone tools. Tunisia was called IfrÄ«qiyyah in the early centuries of the Islamic period. Search This wiki This wiki All wikis | Sign In Don't have an account? The app cover whole Tunisia history from Mesolithic era to Parliamentary system. At night, each locked himself in his room, but in the morning, life was always communal. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Africa Destinations. This changes southward to semiarid conditions on the steppes and to desert in the far south. Following the decline of Rome, the region was ruled briefly by the Vandals and then the Byzantine Empire before being conquered by the Arabs in 647 ce. Piracy remains the chief purpose and main source of income of all these Turkish settlements along the Barbary coast. The major drainage feature of the north is the Majardah River, the country’s only perennially flowing stream, which cuts the Majardah valley before emptying into the Gulf of Tunis, near the site of ancient Carthage. Founded by the Arabs in the year 670, Kairouan in Arabic means ‘military camp’. Tunisia’s accessible Mediterranean Sea coastline and strategic location have attracted conquerors and visitors throughout the ages, and its ready access to the Sahara has brought its people into contact with the inhabitants of the African interior. His reforms negatively affected the already stagnant economy, which led to greater debt, higher taxes, and increased unrest in the countryside. The variation in climate leads to the great diversity of ecoregions in Tunisia. More easily controlled from within than any other Maghrib country, Tunisia was also more open to the influence of people and ideas from abroad. The vegetation and animal life of the country are affected by these erratic climatic conditions. From the Phoenicians to the French, we've got, (nearly) all of them nailed. 278,252 Pages. Recovered for Spain in 1535, Tunisia is finally brought under Ottoman control in 1574. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? This agreement, known as the Convention of Al-Marsa, was signed in 1883 and solidified French control over Tunisia. It is important as a winter sanctuary for such birds as the greylag goose, coot, and wigeon. The fighting in Tunisia underlined both the strengths and weaknesses of the Western Alliance and the United States Army. The climate of the country, similar to the topography, is greatly varied. The Phoenicians marched into Tunisia around 1100 BC, establishing their capital, Carthage (just north of today’s Tunis), as the main power in the western Mediterranean by the 6th century. However they came into conflict with Rome. In the dry south, moreover, they are often also saline because of excessive evaporation. Continued civil disturbances and corruption prompted the British and French to force the bey to issue the Fundamental Pact (ʿAhd al-Amān; September 1857), a civil rights charter modeled on the Ottoman rescript of 1839. Other cities include Sfax (Ṣafāqis), Sousse (Sūsah), and Gabès (Qābis) on the fertile coast and Kairouan (Al-Qayrawān) and El-Kef (Al-Kāf) in the arid interior. Register Military. Carthage fought a series of wars with its rival, Rome. The emerging Roman Empire was not happy with these events, and 128 years of Punic Wars ensued. Roman Africa, for example, was the most intensively Christianized portion of North Africa, and Ifrīqiyyah was later more quickly and more thoroughly Islamicized. Friday, January 14, 2011, became a new date and a specialchapter in the periodization of the history of Tunisia since independence,just like March 20, 1956 (Independence Day), or April 9, 1938.¹ This key1. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Is the northernmost point of Africa farther north than the southernmost point of Europe? Tunisia is the smallest of the Maghrib states and consequently the most cohesive. Tunisia’s culture is highly diverse, in part because of long periods of Ottoman and then French rule but also because populations of Jews and Christians have lived among a Muslim majority for centuries. The Phoenicians founded Carthage in Tunisia in the 8th century BC. This warmth, joined with the country’s renowned hospitality and cuisine, has contributed greatly to Tunisia’s growing popularity as a destination for tourists from throughout Europe and the Americas. . The first Punic War between Carthage an… The amount of precipitation, all falling as rain, varies considerably from north to south. Independence under the Neo-Destour Party (1956–2011), Factional tension, compromise, and a new constitution, Dissatisfaction with the political establishment and the election of Kais Saied, Central Intelligence Agency - The World Factbook - Tunisia, Tunisia - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Tunisia - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). The humid coastal plain in the east, running between the Gulf of Hammamet and the Gulf of Gabes, where Tunisia’s thriving olive plantations are found, is the most agriculturally productive of these coarse-textured soil areas. These have elevations ranging from about 600 to 1,500 feet (180 to 460 metres) and are crossed by secondary ranges trending north-south. A mean annual rainfall of about 60 inches (1,520 mm) occurs in the Kroumirie Mountains in northwestern Tunisia, making it the wettest region in North Africa, as compared with less than 4 inches (100 mm) at Tozeur (Tawzar) in the southwest. Tunisia is bounded by Algeria to the west and southwest, by Libya to the southeast, and by the Mediterranean Sea to the east and north. Tunisia became a French protectorate in 1881 and remained under French rule until March 1956 when it gained independence, followed by the promulgation of a new constitution on 1 June 1959. 11,274,000), 63,378 sq mi (164,150 sq km), NW Africa. Because the principal military threat had long come from neighbouring Algeria, the reigning bey of Tunisia, Ḥusayn, cautiously went along with assurances from the French that they had no intention of colonizing Tunisia. We'll give it a try. Similarly, the capital, Tunis, blends ancient Arab souks and mosques and modern-style office buildings into one of the most handsome and lively cities in the region. Rome prevailed in the mid-2nd century bce, razed Carthage, and ruled the region for the following 500 years. Saved from This uprising almost overthrew the regime, but the government ultimately suppressed it through a combination of guile and brutality. Beach at Al-Marsā, on the Gulf of Tunis, northeastern Tunisia. A single major city, Tunis, dominated the countryside both politically and culturally. (Page of tag Tunisia) For a more detailed treatment of earlier periods and of the country in its regional context, see North Africa. Though Tunisia went bankrupt in 1869 and an international financial commission—with British, French, and Italian representatives—was imposed on the country, there was one last attempt to reform Tunisia from within and thus avoid complete European domination. Dec 15, 2015 - Lamine Bey, first king and last bey of Tunisia. Tunisia’s most fertile soils are found in the well-watered intermontane valleys in the north, where rich sandy clay soils formed from alluvium or soils high in lime content cover the valley bottoms and plains. On the pretext that Tunisians had encroached on Algerian territory, France invaded Tunisia in 1881 and imposed the Treaty of Bardo, which sanctioned French military occupation of Tunisia, transferred to France the bey’s authority over finance and foreign relations, and provided for the appointment of a French resident minister as intermediary in all matters of common interest. The Phoenicians' expanding regional power brought them to the attention of the Ancient Greeks, and late… As in other countries of this arid region, access to water is a major concern. The area was ruled by a succession of Islamic dynasties and empires until coming under French colonial rule in the late 19th century. Soils. Grid View Grid. He did, in 1861, proclaim the first constitution (dustūr; also destour) in the Arabic-speaking world, but this step toward representative government was cut short by runaway debt, a problem exacerbated by the government’s practice of securing loans from European bankers at exorbitant rates. Tunisia is briefly taken in 1534 by the most famous corsair of them all, Khair ed-Din (known to the Europeans as Barbarossa). Ancient Origins articles related to Tunisia in the sections of history, archaeology, human origins, unexplained, artifacts, ancient places and myths and legends. Though sympathetic to the need for reforms, Muḥammad was too weak either to control his own government or to keep the European powers at bay. 1 - 20 of 46 results. This great ethnic diversity is still seen in the variety of Tunisian family names. Large plains border the eastern coasts; south of Sousse lies Al-Sāḥil (Sahel) and south of Gabès is Al-Jifārah (Gefara) Plain. In 1830, at the time of the French invasion of Algiers, Tunisia was officially a province of the Ottoman Empire but in reality was an autonomous state. Amounts are also highly irregular from one year to another, and irregularity increases southward toward the desert. March 20, 1956, is Independence Day, when Tunisia gained its independence fromFrance. Slowly this city became stronger. Temperatures are moderated by the sea, being less extreme at Sousse on the coast, for example, than at Kairouan (Al-Qayrawān) inland. The final collapse of the Tunisian beylik came during the reign of Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq (1859–82). Saharan influences give rise to the sirocco, a seasonal hot, blasting wind from the south that can have a serious drying effect on vegetation. Independence for Tunisia. The highest mountain, Mount Chambi (Al-Shaʿnabī), located near the centre of the Algerian border, rises to 5,066 feet (1,544 metres), while Mount Zaghwān (Zaghouan), about 30 miles (50 km) southwest of Tunis, reaches 4,249 feet (1,295 metres). A small state with limited resources, Tunisia nonetheless managed to retain considerable autonomy within the framework of the larger empires that frequently ruled it from afar. It can be argued that Tunisia’s location is strategic because … Saved by Emperor Reynard IV. Tunisia. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. By the sixth and fifth centuries B.C., the great city-state of Carthage (derived from the Phoenician name for “new city”) dominated much of the western Mediterranean. Kenneth Perkins's new edition of A History of Modern Tunisia carries the history of this country from 2004 to the present, with particular emphasis on the Tunisian revolution of 2011 - the first critical event of … The temperatures are mild along the coast. During the 8th and 9th centuries BC, the Phoenicians became the first of the many civilizations to leave their mark on Tunisia. Tunisia, country of North Africa. Scorpions are found in all regions; among dangerous snakes are the horned viper and the cobra. The kitchen, half of it roofed over and the rest an open courtyard, was a long vertical passage toward the light. Farming methods reached the Nile Valley from the Fertile Crescent region about 5000 BC, and spread to the Maghreb by about 4000 BC. The most famous people of the ancient world to mark the area of modern-day Tunisia were the Phoenicians, who settled here in the 1st millennium BCE and went on to found their legendary capital of Carthage. However, enemies from within and European intrigues from without conspired to force him from office. Tunisia’s security was directly threatened in 1835, when the Ottoman Empire deposed the ruling dynasty in Libya and reestablished direct Ottoman rule. QUICK ADD. This is a whole app is very easy to use. After achieving independence in 1956, Tunisia pursued a progressive social agenda and sought to modernize its economy under two long-serving presidents, Habib Bourguiba and Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali. Stone-age to the modern age in two and a half minutes? Ruins of the ancient baths at Carthage, Tunisia. From north to south, the cork oak forest of the Kroumirie Mountains, with its fern undergrowth sheltering wild boars, gives way to scrub and steppes covered with esparto grass and populated with small game and to the desert, where hunting is forbidden so as to preserve the remaining gazelles. Farther south, streams are intermittent and largely localized in the form of wadis, which are subject to seasonal flooding and terminate inland in chotts. Followers of Generals de Gaulle and Giraud were still unable to unite in a common cause. Tunisia to͞onē´zhə, tyo͞o– [key], Fr. This provoked an uprising in southern Tunisia during which France attacked and captured Sousse in July 1881, took Kairouan in October, and seized Gafsa and Gabès in November. Emeritus Professor, Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences, University of Tunis. It was the Phoenicians that first founded Tunisia’s most famous city of Carthage, which would eventually rival Rome as the most dominant city on the Mediterranean Sea. Although the Arabs initially unified North Africa, by 1230 a separate Tunisian dynasty had been established by the Ḥafṣids. For a more detailed treatment of earlier periods and of the country in its regional context, see North Africa. History First Peoples. In the country’s most southerly regions, within the Sahara, even these seasonal streams are rare. It was made during the reformist ministry of Khayr al-Dīn (1873–77), one of the most effective statesmen of the 19th-century Muslim world. It was a … Yet, Tunisia proved to be as vulnerable economically as it was militarily. History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. In Tunisia, women can pass on their names and nationalities to their children. The next bey, Muḥammad (1855–59), tried to ignore Europe, but this was no longer possible. Then from about 1100 BC the Phoeniciansfrom what is now Lebanon settled and traded in the area. After the death of Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq, his successor, ʿAlī, was forced to introduce administrative, judicial, and financial reforms that the French government considered useful. Generally, from mid-autumn to mid-spring, when three-fourths of the annual total occurs, northern Tunisia receives more than 16 inches of rainfall, and the steppe region receives from 4 to 16 inches (100 to 400 mm). Thereafter, the vulnerable beylik of Tunis found itself surrounded by two larger powers—France and the Ottoman Empire—both of which had designs on Tunisia.